Multiple Copies and Duplication of Materials

General Policy 

Procedures:

General policy

As a rule, Musselman Library does not acquire multiple copies or duplicates of materials that are identical to works already part of its collections.

There are a number of reasons why the library does not acquire multiples or duplicates:

The library has limited space. While adding one more book might not seem to make much of a difference in the short term, over time adding duplicate holdings of many works in an unrestricted manner can absorb a significant amount of very limited space. At this writing, the library's shelves are 87 percent full, so there is very little room for growth for new acquisitions, let alone multiples or duplicates of existing resources.

The library has limited financial resources. Again, while one book may not seem to make much of a difference in terms of expense in the short term, adding multiple copies wastes needed funds in duplicating holdings. Those same funds might be used to purchase other items, older or newer, that the library does not currently possess.

Demand for materials only occasionally justifies owning multiple or duplicate copies of the same work and often high demand is short-lived. The library provides other means, such as document delivery/interlibrary loan, course reserves, digital collections, and rental collections of popular works, in order to meet high patron demand for certain items.

Libraries are not bookstores. While bookstores often do have multiple copies of works for sale to customers, academic libraries are concerned with collecting and providing access to literature and scholarship, both current and historical, to their patrons. Again, demand over time rarely supports the decision to purchase multiple or duplicate copies.

Owning multiple copies of works for student or course use puts the library in direct competition with the campus bookstore. As indicated above, the library's mission is different from that of a bookstore. While the library supports the college curriculum and student research needs, it should not be considered a supplier of textbooks for the campus community. Students are expected to acquire textbooks through the campus bookstore or other means. Faculty are expected to arrange for textbook availability through the campus bookstore.

There are times, however, when the library will consider adding copies of works already in the collection:

When the work is the intellectual product of a significant author and demand for or interest in the work is high. For example, a library more than likely would want more than one copy of Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet. The significance of and demand for the title might warrant the purchasing of additional copies of the same or a similar edition.

When the work is on a subject of special interest to the library and demand for the work is high. For example, a library with a strong U.S. Civil War collection might want to have more than one copy of a key biography of Abraham Lincoln in its collections.

When there is high demand for the work even when the work does not readily appear to be a key work. It is difficult to predict which materials will be popular or in high demand. Heavy usage over time may justify acquiring additional copies of works. However, other methods, such as document delivery/interlibrary loan, course reserves, digital collections, or rental collections of popular works, can also be employed to meet high patron demand.

When there is high demand for the work and an additional copy is needed for course reserves. This is particularly the case with scholarly works or works needed for courses but which might be unavailable, out-of-print, or prohibitive to purchase in plenitude. Thus, adding a copy to course reserves in addition to the one already available in the circulating collections may assist patron needs.

When the work is held by special collections but might also be needed in the circulating collection and vice versa. In this case, access is improved by having the work in the circulating collection. However, the subject matter of or research interest in the item might justify an additional copy in special collections.

When the work is held in the reference collection but might also be needed in the circulating collection and vice versa. In this case, access is improved by having the work in the circulating collection. However, the subject matter, research interest, or nature of the item might justify an additional copy in reference collection.

When the added copy represents a new translation or version different from the existing copy. For example, when a new translation of Don Quijote is published, a library may want to own more than one version. In this case, the new copy is not considered identical to the existing work.

When the added copy represents a new edition of an existing work in the collection. In this case, depending on the nature of the work, the library may prefer to keep multiple editions or may choose to withdraw older editions.

When the added copy represents a different format from the original work. For example, when a motion picture becomes available on DVD after having been released on videocassette or an album recorded originally on vinyl is now available on compact disc. In these circumstances, the new copy is not identical to the existing copy. In both cases, the library may choose to add the new format and withdraw the older, outmoded one.

When the added copy is an online version of a print journal or resource. For example, the library has many journals in print with duplicate holdings in online databases; the library also has electronic versions of some books. In both cases, depending on cost or stability of the database's contents, the online format may not be available long-term. Thus, in this case, it may be better to keep both the print and online versions of the resource.

When the print version of the work offers better browsability or readability than the duplicated electronic version. In some cases, although the electronic version offers convenience and multiple-user access, it may simply be easier to read or view the printed book/journal, or the print version encourages browsing or casual reading. For example, a library may want to have both a print edition of Uncle Tom's Cabin, as well as online access to the text through a digital collection.

Procedure

When an additional copy is requested, the library staff member should talk with the patron to find out why an additional copy is needed. In some cases, the patron may not realize that the library already owns a copy of the work. In other cases, the patron may be interested in the additional copy because it represents a new edition, format, or version. In still other cases, the patron-if he/she is a faculty member-may be planning to have students use the additional copy for a course or an assignment.

If the work is a new version, edition, or translation:

Direct the request to the appropriate subject librarian for action.

The subject librarian will investigate the request and recommend for purchase.

The subject librarian will assign a fund code to the request, usually the code for the departmental allocation of the requesting faculty member.

The subject librarian will forward the request to an acquisitions specialist for ordering. The subject librarian should explain in a note to the acquisitions specialist that a new version/edition/translation is being ordered.

Upon arrival of the new edition or version, the subject librarian may need to evaluate similar or duplicate holdings for withdrawal.

If the requested work represents a new format of an existing visual work (e.g., a video, film, DVD, etc.):

Refer to the media specialist for ordering.

The media specialist will investigate the request and order as necessary.

The media specialist may assign a fund code to the request: either the code for the departmental allocation of the requesting faculty member or the code for a general materials or replacement fund.

Upon arrival of the new format, the media specialist may need to evaluate the duplicate holdings for withdrawal.

If the requested work represents a new format of an existing musical work (e.g., a compact disc, audiocassette, or vinyl album):

Refer to the music subject librarian for action.

The music librarian will investigate the request and recommend for purchase.

The music librarian will assign a fund code to the request usually the code for the faculty allocation of the Sunderman Conservatory.

The music librarian will forward the request to an acquisitions specialist for ordering. The music librarian should explain in a note to the acquisitions specialist that a new format is being ordered.

Upon arrival of the new format, the music librarian may need to evaluate the duplicate holdings for withdrawal.

If the requested item is a duplicate work to be used by a faculty member for a course or an assignment:

Refer the faculty member to a reserves specialist to discuss the matter. The reserves specialist can negotiate the request with the faculty member, determining whether an additional copy is necessary.

The reserves specialist may also involve the subject librarian or the Director of Collection Development to determine the need for the duplicate copy.

The reserves specialist can refer the item to the acquisitions specialist for ordering, assigning a fund code-either the code for the departmental allocation of the requesting faculty member or the code for reserves purchases.

The order should be sent with a note reading A/C (added copy), explaining that this item will be used for course reserves.

The item will be added to course reserves by the reserves specialist.

When the item is no longer needed on reserve, it will be returned to the circulating collection. It is anticipated that with regular weeding of the circulating collection, the duplicate may be eventually withdrawn if it is little used.

If the requested item is a duplicate of periodical holdings but in another format (e.g., request for print that duplicates electronic or vice versa):

Refer the request to the Director of Collection Development.

The Director of Collection Development will consult with the subject librarian, the Director of Technical Services, and the Serials/Acquisition librarian to determine the proper course of action.

If the library staff member believes that an added copy is desirable because of high demand:

Direct the request to the appropriate subject librarian for action, explaining the need for the duplicate item. The subject librarian and/or the library staff member may want to discuss the matter with the Director of Collection Development.

Other means, such as document deliver/interlibrary loan, etc., may be employed to meet patron demand.

However, if the subject librarian determines through investigation that the request is merited, he/she will recommend for purchase.

The subject librarian will assign a fund code to the request, usually the code for the departmental allocation of the requesting faculty member.

The subject librarian will forward the request to an acquisitions specialist for ordering. The subject librarian should explain in a note to the acquisitions specialist that an added copy (A/C) is being ordered.

It is anticipated that with regular weeding of the circulating collection, the duplicate may be eventually withdrawn if it is little used.

If the library staff member believes that there is no high demand for the item, yet is confronted with a situation where the patron insists on the additional copy, the library staff member should consult with the Director of Collection Development. Both colleagues can explain the situation to the patron with the final decision residing with the Director of Collection Development. In general, no additional copy will be purchased without demand or usage meriting such action.

Prepared: February 24, 2006
Adopted: March 3, 2006