Media coverage

Prof. Brian Meier mentioned in

Professor Brian Meier is mentioned in's article about mindful consumption and how eating chocolate "mindfully" can boost your mood.


Eating a small amount of chocolate when in the Buddhist concentration state of mindfulness can increase positive mood, according to research by Gettysburg College.

In a study published in the journal Appetite - supported by the US National Confectioners Association (NCA) - researchers Brian P. Meier et al. found those eating a 15 g portion of chocolate during mindfulness reported more positive mood states than those eating chocolate without the technique, or when eating crackers. 

"In sum, it appears chocolate consumption increases positive mood, but such effects are heightened when it is eaten mindfully," wrote the researchers.

A small portion of chocolate was used during the study, which gives hope that consumers could moderate consumption using mindfulness techniques. 

Study design

Two hundred and fifty eight students at Gettysburg College were assigned to eat either 75 calories (15 g) of chocolate or five crackers in a mindful or non-mindful manner.

The participants self-reported their mood using numeric scales before and after consuming the food.

The chocolate chosen was Blommer's Appalachian Gold Milk Chocolate Discs, while the crackers used were Carr's Plain Table Water Crackers. 

To induce mindfulness within the groups assigned this condition, participants were told to hold the chocolate or cracker in their hand and think about the farmers who produce the ingredients needed for the food.

They were then told to focus on the sensations created from the food when putting it in their mouths. The whole process lasted about four minutes. 

Under control conditions, participants were told to eat around half of the chocolate or crackers straight away then to eat the remaining contents after waiting around four minutes. 

Those asked to eat chocolate mindfully had a greater increase in positive mood than those assigned the three other states.

The researchers suggested that eating other pleasurable foods unrelated to candy, such as potato chips or pizza, may also enhance mood significantly when eaten mindfully. 

Mood-boosting small portions

The 15 g of chocolate used in the study is around a third the size of a regular candy bar. 

"Yet, this amount resulted in an increased positive mood when participants were instructed to eat it mindfully," said the researchers.

"Although speculative, such results may suggest that the positive effect of eating chocolate in terms of mood may occur with small portions when eaten mindfully."

"It could be the case that eating 150 calories of chocolate does not enhance mood any more than eating 75 calories of chocolate," they continued. 

Mindful eating of smaller portions could be a useful intervention to help curb obesity rates in the US, suggested the study authors. 

US consumers eat candy once every two to three days on average, according to earlier NCA-backed research. 

The Gettysburg College researchers said some earlier studies had linked cocoa in chocolate to positive mood states, but said there was limited research on teh modd impact of chocolate consumed as a treat.

An earlier study backed by Barry Callebaut said cocoa flavanols in dark chocolate may induce a calm and content state, but the research authors found limited evidence of enhanced cognitive performance.

Research by Mintel earlier this year found the emotional benefits of chocolate was the main driver of purchase decisions for the category among British consumers. 

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Noah Pompan '18 featured on The Tab

Noah Pompan '18 is featured on The Tab's article on Pompan's new app, BOOM - an app which allows users to share real time videos and locations with one another.

From The Tab:

“BOOM has been our most exciting and passionate endeavor thus far. After recognizing this major problem of not knowing what’s going on around campus in real-time, it was only natural to found a company dedicated to providing the solution. This past year has been a grind and we couldn’t be more excited to launch at UCSB, a true hub of college life, in the coming month.” said Noah.
After the initial idea take off, the pair received funding by winning Gettysburg College’s Entrepreneurial Fellowship and established a team which includes a group of accomplished mentors and a partnership with a Venice-base accelerator.
Though these accomplishments are amazing, Tyler and Noah are now ready to put the app in action and help students around the U.S. be more connected.

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Noah Pompan '18 featured on Noozhawk

Noah Pompan '18 is featured on Noozhawk's article on his new app, BOOM - an app that allows users to share real time videos and locations with one another.

From Noozhawk:

Despite all there is to do in a college community, Tyler Peterson and Noah Pompan constantly found themselves and their peers wondering, “What’s going on right now?”

Their cure to an evening stuck on the couch is BOOM, an app they developed that allows students to share real-time videos and photos of, well, whatever they’re doing.


BOOM won $10,000 and made connections to industry mentors after winning an Entrepreneurial Fellowship at Pompan’s Gettysburg College in Pennsylvania.

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Noah Pompan '18 and Gettysburg College featured on The Odyssey

Noah Pompan '18 and Gettysburg College are featured on The Odyssey's article on Pompan's new app, BOOM - an app to help users share videos with one another in real time.

From The Odyssey:

With BOOM, your social calendar will quickly fill up. The days of wasting your time walking to lame parties are dwindling. You will be able to gauge their lit levels before you even leave your house. Not limited to just the party scene, users can "boom" schools events and deals at local restaurants.

If this app wasn't amazing enough, it was actually founded by one of our very own! Tyler Peterson, a third year UCSB Economics and Accounting major, and co-founder Noah Pompan, a third year Gettysburg College student, have spent a little over half a year creating and developing this revolutionary app. Friends since birth, these innovative college students have shared deep entreprenuial roots. Even at a young age, Peterson and Pompan would create their own little "start-ups"; buying and selling used sporting equipment for a profit being just one of their many successful endeavors.

Peterson and Pompan initially began to discuss the idea of the app in January. In April, they received the Gettysburg College's Entrepreneurial Fellowship that gave them the budget to begin to bring the app to life. With the help of mentors, the two young men worked fervently through the summer and are excitedly anticipating the launch of the app in late October/early November.

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Noah Pompan '18 featured on USCB

Noah Pompan '18 is featured on UC Santa Barbara's The Current on the creation of his new app BOOM - an app that helps users find friends and events near them. The app won first prize in the Entrepreneurial Fellowship Competition at Gettysburg College.

From UCSB's The Current:

“We’re creating a virtual hub of college life,” Peterson said. The idea for the app came out of a vacation conversation between Peterson and Noah Pompan, his lifelong friend and fellow BOOM creator.


The app won first prize in the Entrepreneurial Fellowship Competition at Gettysburg College (Pompan’s alma mater). Since then the BOOM co-founders partnered with an accelerator program in Venice, Calif. and brought in lead engineer Greg Pynes. The friends recently brought the app back to UCSB for its beta testing/moment of reckoning.

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Dr. Christopher Bolan featured on ABC27

Middle East expert Dr. Christopher Bolan, Professor at Gettysburg College, is featured on ABC27 for his discussion with fellow expert on the Israeli-Arab conflict.

From ABC27:

Two Middle East experts from the U.S. Army War College held a discussion Thursday night at the Radisson Hotel Harrisburg in Camp Hill.

Talks, led by Dr. Chistopher Bolan and Dr. Larry P. Goodson, touched on both sides of the issue.

Dr. Bolan teaches courses on contemporary national security issues and the Middle East. Also an adjunct faculty member at Gettysburg College, Bolan spent six years as a senior advisor and analyst on Middle Eastern and South Asian affair for Vice Presidents Al Gore and Dick Cheney.

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Prof. Shirley Warshaw published in the Pittsburgh Post Gazette

Professor Shirley Warshaw's article on Steve Bannon and his involvement in the White House is published in the Pittsburgh Post Gazette,

From Pittsburgh Post Gazette:

Jockeying for power is in full bloom in the Trump White House, with Steve Bannon the undisputed winner to date. He cleverly insisted on the title “chief strategist” and “senior counselor,” placing him a notch above others and allowing him to be the final voice that President Donald J. Trump hears on virtually every issue.

While the chief of staff traditionally sits in with the president on every meeting, Mr. Bannon has inserted himself into this role as well. Even the powerful Karl Rove, George W. Bush’s chief strategist, and David Axelrod, Barack Obama’s chief strategist, drew tighter boundaries. Mr. Bannon has no boundaries and is active in every facet of the Trump decision-making structure.

To date, it is Mr. Bannon’s “platform of the alt-right,” a term he coined, that has driven the Trump agenda, from the ban on Muslims entering the United States, to the absence of mentioning Jews in the presidential Holocaust remembrance, to the building of the wall on the Mexican border. Mr. Bannon’s anti-immigration, anti-global, anti-pluralism platform has dominated Mr. Trump’s executive orders. Where are the policy proposals from other wings of the White House staff addressing housing, transportation or economic policy?

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